Research

My research trajectory is informed by my professional experience in both journalism and strategic communication. I study health communication with a special focus on the effects of new media and technologies on health communication. My journalism research looks at how digital technologies influence journalism practices in developing countries. My strategic communication research is largely about global health communication, misinformation, health behavior, social media, and global social change.

I use various research methods including quantitative (e.g., survey and content analysis), qualitative (e.g., textual analysis, in-depth interview, thematic analysis), and computational (e.g., text mining, social network analysis, sentiment analysis).

My research works have been published in a variety of academic journals including the Journalism: Theory, Practice & Criticism, Journalism Practice, Journal of Media Ethics, International Journal of Communication, Media International Australia, Convrergence:The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vaccine, Vaccines, Digital Health, Health, Risk & Society, Third World Quarterly, Psychology & Health, Death Studies, American Journal of Health Education, and Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy. I have presented my research at various regional, national, international conferences. My journalistic works have appeared in Society of Professional Journalists, USC Center on Public Diplomacy, and The Educationist. Below is the list of my peer-reviewed publications.

Peer-Reviewed Publications

  1. Jamil, S., Iqbal, A., Ittefaq, M., & Kamboh, S.A. (2022). Building a media literate society: Pathways to improve media and information literacy education in Pakistan. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator. https://doi.org/10.1177/10776958221125358
  2. Seo, H., Liu, Y., Ittefaq, M., Shayesteh, F., Kamanga, U. & Baines, A. (2022). International migrants and coronavirus disease 2019 vaccinations: Social Media, motivated information management, and vaccination willingness. Digital Health, 8(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1177/20552076221125972
  3. Zhou, L., Ouyang, F., Li, Y., Zhan, J., Akhtar, N., & Ittefaq, M. (2022). Examining the Factors Influencing Tourists’ Destination : A Case of Nanhai Movie Theme Park in China. Sustainability, 14(18), 11419. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811419
  4. Ittefaq, M., Kamboh, S.A., Iqbal, A., Iftikhar, U., AAbwao, M., & Arif, R. (2022). Understanding Public Reactions to State Security Officials’ Suicide Cases in Online News Comments. Death Studies, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2022.2101074
  5. Baines, A., Seo, H., Ittefaq, M., Shayesteh, F., Kamanga, U., & Liu, Y. (2022). Race/ethnicity, online information and COVID-19 vaccination: Study of minority immigrants’ internet use for health-related information. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1177/13548565221116075
  6. Kamboh, S.A., Ittefaq, M., & Yousaf, M. (2022). Editorial journalism and environmental issues in the majority world. International Journal of Communication, 16, 2646-2668. https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/18128/3783
  7. Ittefaq, M., Seo, H., Abwao, M., & Baines, A. (2022). Social media use for health, cultural characteristics, and demographics: A survey of Pakistani millennials. Digital Health, 8, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1177/20552076221089454
  8. Ittefaq, M., & Kamboh, S. A. (2022). COVID-19 and national images: the case of #ResignModi. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 18, 15–17. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41254-021-00253-z
  9. Ittefaq, M., Abwao, M., Baines, A., & Belmas, G., Kamboh, S.A., & Figueroa, E. (2022). A pandemic of hate: Social representations of COVID-19 in the media. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 22(1), 225-252. https://doi.org/10.1111/asap.12300
  10. Baines, A., Ittefaq, M., & Abwao, M. (2022). Social media for social support: A study of international graduate students in the U.S. Journal of International Students. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v12i2.3158
  11. Kamboh, S.A., Ittefaq, M., & Sahi, A. (2021). Journalistic routines as factors promoting COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Pakistan. Third World Quarterly, 43(1), 278-287. //doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2021.1995713
  12. Shah, S.F.A., Ginossar, T., & Ittefaq, M. (2021). “We always report under pressure”: Professionalism and journalistic identity among regional journalists in a conflict zone. Journalism. https://doi.org/10.1177/14648849211050442
  13. Ittefaq, M., Abwao, M., & Kamboh, S.A. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine selfie: Why does it matter? American Journal of Health Education, 52 (6), 360-363. https://doi.org/10.1080/19325037.2021.1973615
  14. Ejaz, W., Ittefaq, M., & Arif, M. (2021). Understanding influences, misinformation, and fact-checking concerning climate-change journalism in Pakistan. Journalism Practice, 16(2-3), 404-424. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2021.1972029
  15. Ittefaq, M., Kamboh, S.A., & Abwao, M. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine selfie: A modest endeavor to increase vaccine acceptance. Psychology & Health. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2021.1957888
  16. Ittefaq, M., Ejaz, W., Jamil, S., Iqbal, A., & Arif, R. (2021). Discriminated in society and marginalized in media: Social representation of Christian sanitary workers in Pakistan. Journalism Practice. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2021.1939103
  17. Ittefaq, M., Ejaz. W., Fahmy, S. F., & Sheikh, A. (2021). Converged journalism: Practices and influences in Pakistan. Media International Australia, 181 (1), 167-182. https://doi.org/10.1177/1329878X211017329
  18. Abwao, M., Ittefaq, M., Baines, A., & Liu, P. (2021). “The disabled community is still waiting for equality”: What do users have to say about sexual reproductive health of persons with disabilities in online news comments. Frontiers in Communication, 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2021.667627
  19. Ejaz, W., Ittefaq, M., Seo, H., & Naz, F. (2021). Factors associated with the belief in COVID-19 related conspiracy theories in Pakistan. Health, Risk, & Society, 23(3-4), 162-178. https://doi.org/10.1080/13698575.2021.1929865
  20. Ittefaq, M., Ahmed, Z.S., & Pantoja, Y.I.M. (2021). China’s Belt and Road Initiative and soft power in Pakistan: An examination of the local English-language press. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41254-021-00212-8
  21. Baines, A., Ittefaq, M., & Abwao, M. (2021). #Scamdemic, #Plandemic, or #Scaredemic: What Parler social media platform tells us about COVID-19 vaccine. Vaccines, 9(5), 421. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050421
  22. Laeeq, M. L., Ittefaq, M., Pantoja, Y. I. M., Malik, A., & Raziq, M. M. (2021). Public engagement model to analyze digital diplomacy on Twitter: A social media analytics framework. International Journal of Communication, 15, 1741–1769.
  23. Ittefaq, M., Abwao, M., & Rafique, S. (2021). Polio vaccine misinformation on social media: Turning point in the fight against polio eradication in Pakistan. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 17(8), 2575-2577. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1894897
  24. Ittefaq, M., Baines, A., Abwao, M., Shah, S.F.A., & Ramzan, T. (2021). “Does Pakistan still have polio cases?”: Exploring discussions on polio and polio vaccine in online news comments in Pakistan. Vaccine, 39(3), 480-486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.12.039
  25. Arafat, S.Y., Shoib, S., Marthoenis, M., Kar, K.S., Menon, V., Ittefaq, M., & Kabir, R. (2020). Media reporting of suicide in Muslim countries. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 23(10), 941-944. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674676.2020.1825362
  26. Ittefaq, M., Hussain, S. A., & Fatima, M. (2020). COVID-19 and social-politics of medical misinformation on social media in Pakistan. Media Asia, 47(1-2), 75-80. https://doi.org/10.1080/01296612.2020.1817264
  27. Ejaz, W., & Ittefaq, M. (2020). Data for understanding trust in varied information sources, use of news media, and perception of misinformation regarding COVID-19 in Pakistan. Data in Brief, 32, 106091. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106091
  28. Ittefaq, M. (2019). Digital diplomacy via social networks: A cross-national analysis of governmental usage of Facebook and Twitter for digital engagement. Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia18(1), 49-69. https://doi.org/10.17477/jcea.2019.18.1.049
  29. Ahmad, T., Alvi, A., & Ittefaq, M. (2019). The use of social media on political participation among university students: an analysis of survey results from rural pakistan. SAGE Open, 9(3), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019864484
  30. Kamboh, S. A., & Ittefaq, M. (2019). Newspaper suicide reporting in a Muslim country: Analysis of violations and compliance with international guidelines. Journal of Media Ethics34(1), 2-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/23736992.2019.1568252
  31. Ittefaq, M. (2019). Revisiting news value theory in the age of globalization. Journal of Media Studies33(2), 81-100.
  32. Ittefaq, M., & Iqbal, A. (2018). Digitization of the health sector in Pakistan: challenges and opportunities to online health communication: A case study of MARHAM social and mobile media. Digital Health4. https://doi.org/10.1177/2055207618789281
  33. Ittefaq, M., & Ahmad, T. (2018). Representation of Islam and Muslims on social media: A discourse analysis of Facebook. Journal of Media Critiques [JMC]4(13), 39-52 10.17349/jmc118103

Book Chapters

  1. Abwao, M., Ittefaq, M., & Watson, J. (2022). People with Disabilities and Self-Disclosure about Sexual Reproductive Health on the Internet. In Manning, J., & Noland, C. (2nd ed.), Contemporary Studies of Sexuality and Communication: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives (pp. 259-274). Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.
  2. Shah, S. F., Jan, F., & Ittefaq, M. (2021). Health and safety risks to journalists during pandemics. In Jamil, S., Çoban, B., Ataman, B., & Appiah-Adjei, G. (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Discrimination, Gender Disparity, and Safety Risks in Journalism (pp. 90-103). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-6686-2.ch006

Book Review

  1. Ittefaq, M. (2021). [Review of the book Movements for Change: How Individuals, Social Media and Al Jazeera Are Changing Pakistan, Egypt and Tunisia, by Rauf Arif]. International Journal of Communication, 15, 1875–1878.

Conference Presentations

  1. Seo, H., Conlin, J., Diwanji, V., Baines, A., Altschwager, D., Blomberg, M., Kamanga, U., Ittefaq, M., & Pei, J. (2022). Visuals for public health campaigns: Effects of visual modality and frame in increasing vaccination intentions. Paper presented at Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, August 3-6, Detroit, MI, United States.
  2. Ittefaq, M., Zain, A., & Bokhari, H. (2022). Opioids as comedy: Exploring topics, sentiments, and engagement in Last Week Tonight with John Oliver on YouTube. Paper accepted at International Communication Association, May 26-30, Paris, France.
  3. Kamboh, S. A., Ittefaq, M., & Yousaf, M. (2021). Critical analysis of South Asian advocacy journalism practices for advocating environmental issues during the COVID-19 pandemic. Paper presented to the South Asia Communication Association (SACA) at Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, August 4-7, New Orleans, United States.
  4. Ittefaq, M., Kamboh, S. A., Iqbal, A., Iftikhar, U., Abwao, M., & Arif, R. (2021). Understanding public reaction to celebrity suicide cases in online news comments. Paper presented at Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, August 4-7, New Orleans, United States.
  5. Seo, H., Liu, Y., Ittefaq, M., Shayesteh, F., Kamanga, U., & Baines, A. (2021). International migrants and COVID-19 vaccination: Social media, motivated information management & vaccination willingness. Paper presented at Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, August 4-7, New Orleans, United States.
  6. Baines, A., Seo, H., Ittefaq, M., Shayesteh, F., Kamanga, U., & Liu, Y. (2021). Race/ethnicity, online information & COVID-19 vaccination: Study of minority immigrants’ internet use for health-related information. Paper accepted for presentation at Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, August 4-7, New Orleans, United States.
  7. Baines, A., Ittefaq, M., & Abwao, M. (2021). #Scamdemic, #Plandemic, or #Scaredemic: What Parler social media platform tells us about COVID-19 vaccine. Paper presented at Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, August 4-7, New Orleans, United States.
  8. Ittefaq, M., Ahmed, S. Z., & Pantoja, M. Y. (2021). China’s Belt and Road Initiative and soft power in Pakistan: An examination of the English press. Paper presented at International Association for Media and Communication Research, July 11-15, Nairobi, Kenya.
  9. Ittefaq, M., Abwao, M., Baines, A., Belmas, G. (2021). There’s not just a pandemic of health — there’s a pandemic of hate: A qualitative content analysis of three national newspapers from three countries. Paper presented at Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Midwinter, March 5, Oklahoma, United States.
  10. Ittefaq, M., Vu, H., Baines, A., & Abwao, M. (2021). Automated framing analysis of polio and polio vaccination coverage in 15 regional and national Pakistani English newspapers between 2012 and 2020. Paper presented at International Communication Association, May 27-31, Denver, United States.
  11. Seo, H., Liu, Y., Ebrahim, H., Ittefaq, M., & Chung, D. (2021). COVID-19 pandemic and international students: A mixed-methods approach to social media, social support & mental health. Paper presented at International Communication Association, May 27-31, Denver, United States.
  12. Ittefaq, M., Baines, A., Abwao, M., Shah, S.F.A., & Ramzan, T. (2021). “Does Pakistan still have polio cases?”: Exploring discussions on polio and polio vaccine in online news comments in Pakistan. Paper presented at International Communication Association, May 27-31, Denver, United States.
  13. Shah, S. F. A, Ginossar, T., Ittefaq, M. (2020). Renegotiating professionalism and journalistic identities: Small town journalists in Pakistan. National Communication Association, November 19-22, Indianapolis, United States.
  14. Liu, P., Ittefaq, M., Abwao, M., & Kamanga, U. (2020). Facebook/WeChat use and acculturation: A study of Chinese international students in the United States. Midwest Conference on Asian Affairs annual conference, October 16-18, Online, United States.
  15. Ittefaq, M., Seo, H., Abwao, M., & Baines, A. (2020). Social Media use for health, cultural values, and demographics: A survey of Pakistani millennials. Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication annual conference, August 6-9, San Francisco, United States.
  16. Baines, A., Ittefaq, M., & Abwao, M. (2020). The power of technology: How do international graduate students at a U.S. university use of social networking sites to seek social support? Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication annual conference August 6-9, San Francisco, United States.
  17. Ittefaq, M., Sheikh, M. A., Ejaz, W., Yousaf, M., & Fahmy, S. (2020). The marriage of inconvenience: Perception of media convergence among journalists in Pakistan. Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication annual conference August 6-9, San Francisco, United States.
  18. Erba, J., Geana, M., Kamanga, U., Abwao, M., Ittefaq, M., Liu, P., & Watson, J. (2020). Does a doctor’s visible identity matter? Exploring self-reported and real-time responses to a doctor’s race and gender in educational videos about clinical trials. International Communication Association annual conference, May 21-25, Gold Coast, Australia.
  19. Ittefaq, M. (2019). Reverse agenda setting via like and share: The influence of audience feedback on the media agenda. International Communication Association annual conference, May 24-28, Washington D.C. United States.
  20. Ittefaq, M. (2019). Digital diplomacy via social networks: A cross-national analysis of governmental usage of Facebook and Twitter for digital engagement. International Communication Association annual conference, May 24-28, Washington D.C. United States.
  21. Ittefaq, M. (2017). Comparative empirical case study of foreign news between Chinese & English social media (Twitter vs. Sina Weibo). World Communication Association annual conference, August 6-8, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
  22. Ittefaq, M. & Ahmed, A. (2017). Use of social networking sites in public diplomacy- A case study of PEHC abroad. International Conference on Strategic Communication and Public Diplomacy annual conference, July 7-8, Ilmenau, Germany.
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